Exective summary

The Science of SCOPE

The SCOPE mission strategy

SCOPE in the Roadmap

SCOPE and the simulation studies

Link to Cross-Scale (ESA)

International collaborarations

The SCOPE formation is composed of the mother-daughter pair and the three spacecraft that surrounds the pair. The five spacecraft will be launched by H-2A and will be brought into the orbit by a thruster module. The plan is that JAXA will provide the launcher, the thruster module and the mother-daughter pair, while the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) will provide the three spacecraft of the outer-formation. On-going joint study will end with the joint System Requirements Review in about two years (within the Japanese FY2010). Launching of the SCOPE formation requires only half of the launcher capability. It is programmatically desirable if the other half is used for launching spacecraft into the same orbit as SCOPE. There is strong interest in the US community to utilize this spare capability to send their spacecraft to the same orbit and to reinforce the simultaneous multi-scale observations by SCOPE and Cross-Scale --- More is better when it comes to this type of science. Indeed On-orbit collaboration with ESA's Cross-Scale has been the first priority in planning SCOPE since 2004 when we made a presentation at COSPAR and started having discussions with our European colleagues. The success of Cross-Scale in the first down-selection in October 2006 has accelerated the interest of Russian and Chinese colleagues in joining force to build a spacecraft constellation that is capable of full multi-scale observations, with SCOPE/Cross-Scale sitting at the core of it.

As the primary international partner in the SCOPE mission, CSA views this opportunity as a high scientific opportunity. The Canadian space science community has taken decisive steps in recent years to bolster our international collaboration in large cutting-edge missions such as SCOPE. The scientific targets of the mission are of deep interest to Canadian scientists: Our daily exposure to aurora has given us an appreciation of the turbulent plasma universe that is however governed by discernible laws; our vulnerability to space weather gives us the incentive to understand how energy is converted and transported in space. The potential provision of the three outer probes would give Canada a new first in terms of building standalone satellites for an intricate constellation mission. These are some of the compelling scientific and programmatic reasons for the CSA and Canadian community to pursue seriously this opportunity as a primary partner.

image largeimage small The Plasma Universe. The SCOPE mission is not only for deeper understanding of the magnetosphere but also for the Plasma Universe theme. The world-wide interest in the SCOPE mission reflects the fact that many of us around the world are prepared to expand the horizon of the research field. The SCOPE mission is sitting at the cutting-edge of this new movement.
image largeimage small SCOPE and Cross-Scale. We have been having the discussion of combining SCOPE and Cross-Scale for more than five years now. The figure clearly shows that the two missions, though aiming at the same science goal, are complementary to each other and comes to put on the best shape when they are combined. SCOPE, based on the Japanese success experience of Geotail, has a more centralized design while Cross-Scale, based on the European success experience of Cluster, has a more distributed design. Indeed Cross-Scale was proposed as an international collaboration mission to ESA in 2007 and two members from the SCOPE team have been the members of Science Study Team of Cross-Scale in Phase-A since 2008.
image largeimage small SCOPE in the full international collaboration scheme. In view of the world-wide interest in simultaneous multi-scale observations, the dream mission depicted in the figure should be possible. In addition to the strong science driver, a practical reason is that a small addition to the constellation means a lot when the core is established: More is different. And it is SCOPE and Cross-Scale that will establish the core.

The US community's interest

PDF NASA Heliophysics Roadmap


The SCOPE mission is addressing questions that are at the core of the U.S. heliophysics science program. In fact SCOPE and Cross-Scale are listed in the 2009 roadmap as critical for addressing "How do the large-scale topologies of magnetic reconnection affect microphysical processes, and vice-versa." The very first Research Focus Area in the 2009 Roadmap is to understand magnetic reconnection, and the second is to understand processes that accelerate and transport particles. The SCOPE focus on reconnection, shocks and turbulence directly relates to these topics.

The US community understands clearly the benefit of participating in international partnership missions in order to achieve the greatest science given a limited budget. The 2009 Roadmap notes that "Foreign contributions to NASA payloads have significantly improved the quality of many science missions. Strengthening the technical teamwork between the United States and our partners permits activities that could not be achieved separately." SCOPE is listed explicitly as an example of a potential international partnership.

How exactly the US will participate in SCOPE will depend on the results of negotiations between the agencies, and the competitive selection process. At this point, the main contribution being pursued is a US-provided ion mass spectrometer for the SCOPE.

ESA Cross-Scale ( http://www.cross-scale.org/ )


PDF Executive summary
The SCOPE team has been working together with the Cross-Scale team (formerly known as M3) for more than five years, starting well ahead of the call for proposals in the Cosmic Vision 2015-25 frame work. Indeed the Cross-Scale proposal was submitted as a joint proposal and, after the successful first selection, two SCOPE team members are among the Cross-Scale Science Study Team members. The discussion toward collaboration has been smooth because we share the common goal, because we know that the joint SCOPE/Cross-Scale is what we really want, and because we have known each other quite well via Geotail-Cluster collaboration and through the Bepi-Colombo project preparation. The common goal we share now, the Plasma Universe theme, is not something that we grabbed that had existed, but rather it is something that has been built-up through the effort on Geotail and Cluster data analysis.

PDF Cross-Scale.pdf
A paper describing the Cross-Scale mission: W. Baumjohann, T. Horbury, S. Schwartz, P. Canu, P. Louarn, M. Fujimoto, R. Nakamura, C. Owen, A. Roux, and A. Vaivads, The Cross-Scale Mission, AIP Conf. Proc. Volume 1144, pp. 25-28 (2009)